SATISH CHANDER SG W BIDIRECTIONAL VISITOR COUNTER of each 7-segment display are connected to port P2 of the microcontroller AT89C51 . IS P L A Y CODING: // Program to make a bidirectional visitor counter using IR . Mini Project Report On Digital Visitor counter using Microcontroller . ROOM APPLIANCE CONTROL WITH BIDIRECTIONAL VISITOR COUNTER. This is a simple circuit diagram of bidirectional visitor counter using microcontroller which helps to count the number of people entering or leaving a room.

Author: Tezahn Guzshura
Country: Oman
Language: English (Spanish)
Genre: Finance
Published (Last): 17 June 2004
Pages: 285
PDF File Size: 15.15 Mb
ePub File Size: 3.57 Mb
ISBN: 444-6-59263-701-2
Downloads: 38531
Price: Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]
Uploader: Gak

Similarly, when the second sensor detects an obstacle, the count is decremented. Chapter 2 explains the power supply used in this project.

Microcontroller (AT89C51) based Digital Visitor Counter Project

A voltage regulator is an electrical regulator designed to automatically maintain a constant voltage level. It is the ratio of change in diode voltage to the change in diode current over a straight line joining two limits of operation.

The program can be rested by pressing the reset button on the board The notes on this uwing are for all boards except the Due, which has a different architecture There are three pools of memory in the microcontroller used on AVR-based Arduino boards: The adapter can uwing connected by plugging a 2.

From the block diagram it is clear that the sensor pairs are placed face to face countwr that an IR radiations from IR LED are continuously received by phototransistor which makes its emitter base junction forward and collector current Ic equals to emitter current Ie i.


The key features of microcontrollers include: Clipper- Diode can be used to clip off some portion of pulse without distorting the remaining part of the waveform. A stable voltage can be achieved by placing a resistor across it to limit the current.

The diagram shows an inner section diagram of a relay. It is assumed that the resistance of these metal semiconductor contacts remain constant despite of the magnitude and direction of current. This is to provide a clock pulse for the Atmega chip. They are often used to interface an electronic circuit working at a low voltage to an electrical circuit which works at very high voltage.

The forward resistance must be very small in few ohms while backward resistance must be very high in the range of mega ohms. The project is useful in developing countries and this project has a bright future. The diode continues to be in the non conducting state until the reverse voltage drops below the zener voltage.

Click here to sign up.

This power supply circuit diagram is ideal for an average current requirement of 1Amp. These resistors can become extremely hot when used for high usinh application, and this must be taken into account when designing the circuit. Chapter 7 introduces proposed future work and conclusions and then the bibliography.

The similar discussion applies to the electron current in the n-region. Now let us take the different steps that occur in a relay.

Automatic bidirectional visitor counter using 8051 microcontroller (AT89C51)

Bisitor, when the relay in energized the current flow will be through the pins 2 and 4. In this LCD each character is displayed in 5×7 pixel matrix.


The result of their work was the TMSwhich became commercially available in This makes battery polarization bidirectiona since mechanical connection is only possible in one configuration. Capacitors are widely used in electronic circuits to block the flow of bidirctional current while allowing alternating current to pass, to filter out interference, to smooth the output of power supplies, and for many other purposes.

That is an important element of every program to be reliable without man’s supervision. Thus the switch plays an important role in the relay working. This is known as the biasing.

This project can be used to count and display the number of visitors entering inside any conference room or seminar hall. In order for a microprocessor to be used, other components such as memory, or components for receiving and sending data must be added to it. For high voltage applications, they are mainly designed to reduce a phenomenon called arcing. The generic diodes are used in the following fields: Turn on the multimeter and select the maximum resistance range.

Although designed primarily as fixed voltage regulators, these devices can be used with external components to obtain adjustable voltages and currents Table 2.