Instruction nº 01/, which establishes the criteria for sustainable .. outras providências (Decreto nº , de 23 de dezembro de ). de Residuos Solidos (Lei 12,/), Decreto Regulamentador (Dec. 7,/ ), Responsabilidade Compartilhada, Logistica Reversa. The City currently landfills the organic fraction of municipal solid waste. (MSW). ..
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Waste Management, 26, The questionnaire was made available on a website for 30 days from May to June 0210 this paper, we analyze Public Consortia of Municipalities, a basic instrument of the National Policy for Solid Waste of Brazil, a country with more than municipalities. To understand a policy instrument is necessary to understand their characteristics and what it entails in terms of effectiveness, efficiency and equity. Furthermore, in most landfills, decrfto is no proper treatment for the slurry toxic liquid generated by organic garbage decomposition.
If these Consortia come into operation inthey took four to five years from the first phase of discussion and to the second phase of execution. As far as the formation of a Consortia is concerned, lack of Integrated Solid Waste Management Plans will require more efforts in training of human resources, since several initial steps that should be part of the creation of Consortia requires, for example, under taking economic and financial feasibility studies.
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This is a relevant question from a public policy making point of view. We also suggest how to evaluate whether each criterion was accomplished and, finally, we make a connection with the lessons learned from results analysis for each criterion.
However, when the research started, it was found that there was no information available on the main characteristics and problems faced by Public Consortia for MSWM in the country.
The PNRS imposes deadlines for the closure of dumpsites and the implementation of proper waste disposal, providing treatment, recycling, composting, gas recovery from landfills, planning and cost recovery initiatives, putting pressure on governments at all levels, especially the municipal, to comply with the new law.
The Law of PNRS, in general terms, brings the concepts 77404 shared responsibility, inclusion of waste pickers and hierarchy-not generation, reduction, reuse, recycling, solid waste treatment and environmentally adequate disposal of waste.
This would not be a problem if the municipalities had already completed an Integrated Solid Waste Management Plan that presumably contains these previous studies. Objectives of the 29 Public Consortia. Rio de Janeiro, RJ. Given the nonexistence of data on characteristics.
Depending on cecreto interests and needs of municipalities, Consortia can meet different objectives or sectors in a single contract, which can reduce administrative costs and increase regional cooperation. In addition, the absence of Integrated Plans municipal or inter-municipal requires more efforts and resources towards the formation of a Consortia. The international concern in 77404 to solid wastes, household solid wastes, has increased due to increase in production and to inadequate management and disposal areas.
Excessive generation of and scarce environmentally safe disposal sites for solid waste are among the biggest challenges facing modern society. Elaborated by 2100 authors based upon: Considering that the decreho goal of the 29 Consortia is the final disposal of solid waste and, consequently, the construction of landfills, it is motive of concern the low proportion of studies on territorial characteristics, land use occupation and distance between the municipalities in the decrsto of the 29 Consortia.
The first question that drove this study was to establish whether the prioritization and the incentive to the access to government resources provided by the PNRS to municipalities, for formation of Public Consortia for regionalized management of USW services, led to an efficient MSWM. Contato telefonico em 30 mai. In particular, one of the biggest problems in densely urbanized areas, especially in metropolitan areas, is the lack of appropriate places to have the waste properly disposed.
This reality of municipal solid waste management MSWM is also present in 74004 large and economic diversified country like Brazil, where municipalities are responsible, by law, for the provision for public service of urban cleaning and solid waste management.
In applying criteria for public policy evaluation upon SWM for Public Consortia in Brazil we had some useful insights into Consortia implementation issues. Arranjos Federativos e Desigualdades Regionais no Brasil.
The lack of municipal technical capacity was evident throughout the research, confirmed by the answers of the Consortia. Since there is no Federal Agency that centralizes this information, we conducted a survey in all 26 Brazilian states and the Federal District.
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The survey of existing Public Consortia for SWM was conducted from January to May based upon responses received by email, phone contacts, internet searches, review of academic papers on specific Consortia, municipal laws, reports and State Integrated Plans. Most do not meet environmentally safe MSW disposal levels because of a lack of sanitary landfills.
On the other hand, half of the 29 Consortia manifested the need for tax collection as a challenge to cover expenditure on maintaining services. We sought to identify the Public Consortia for existing MSWM in Brazil and conduct a case study with 29 Public Consortia, rising, through the answers obtained, the main characteristics and the problems faced by this instrument of the PNRS. Data from the IBGE a confirms that the absence of such analyzes is a dominant reality in Brazilian municipalities, given that only However, municipalities, the smaller ones, face difficulties for SWM: International Tax and Public Finance, 14, In this context, effective management of municipal waste is required, but local authorities in many countries are constrained by limited finances and inadequate services.
In most countries, local authorities are charged with the responsibility of collecting and disposing of solid and liquid municipal wastes within their areas of jurisdiction municipalities or counties. Based upon the decteto of our sample of 29 Public Consortia in Brazil it is possible to evaluate this instrument, as a PNRS instrument.
Details of Public Consortia are summarized in Table 1. It is identified a policy failure in the case dedreto not considering that if there is a lack of Plans and technical capacity, the objectives of the Law in predicting this priority in access to resources would be not achieved. The data from Chart 1 demonstrates that, for the 29 Consortia, the formation of Public Consortia tends to focus in municipalities with up to 50, inhabitants 6being the majority concentrated in the ranges between 10, to decrto, inhabitants.
Elaborated by authors based dcereto data from this research. These priorities include the reduction of waste generation, reducing final disposal on the ground, maximizing reuse, the selective collection and recycling, composting and energy recovery.
In addition, it shows the relevance of the evaluation and makes a proposal on how and what to evaluate decretp USW management through Public Consortia from the obtained results.
Although these steps are essential for the implementation of an instrument such as the Public Consortia, answers obtained in our research suggest that the components of each step of this first phase are very below the level desirable for ddecreto step.
This study identifies the characteristics of Public Consortia, its advantages and disadvantages for urban solid waste management based upon the analysis of 29 Public Consortia in the Northeast, Southeast and South regions of Brazil.